对Oracle数据库进行备份的两种方法详解

time:2019-05-05    来源:自我introduce演讲稿    点击:

本文introduce两种oracle数据库的备份方法,包括用oracle自带的rman进行备份及用veritas一体机的脚本备份方式进行oracle备份。
1、用oracle自带备份 ssh到生产系统172.16.10.1  su – oracle export ORACLE_SID=yewu1 rman target / list backupset; backup database; //备份数据库(if想把备份的文件存到其他柯約ure写成backup database format ‘/u01/backup/%U’;) quit 2、用veritas一体机备份 1) cd /symantecscripts/ 2)vi yewu1.sh
该脚本代码如下:
#!/bin/sh # $Header: hot_database_backup.sh,v 1.3 2010/08/04 17:56:02 $ # #bcpyrght #*************************************************************************** #* $VRTScprght: Copyright 1993 - 2011 Symantec Corporation, All Rights Reserved $ * #*************************************************************************** #ecpyrght # # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- #              hot_database_backup.sh # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- #  This script uses Recovery Manager to take a hot (inconsistent) database #  backup. A hot backup is inconsistent because portions of the database are #  being modified and written to the disk while the backup is progressing. #  You must run your database in ARCHIVELOG mode to make hot backups. It is #  assumed that this script will be executed by user root. In order for RMAN #  to work properly we switch user (su -) to the oracle dba account before #  execution. If this script runs under a user account that has Oracle dba #  privilege, it will be executed using this user's account. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Determine the user which is executing this script. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- CUSER=`id |cut -d"(" -f2 | cut -d ")" -f1` # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Put output in <this file name>.out. Change as desired. # Note: output directory requires write permission. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- RMAN_LOG_FILE=${0}.out # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # You may want to delete the output file so that backup information does # not accumulate.  If not, delete the following lines. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- if [ -f "$RMAN_LOG_FILE" ] then     rm -f "$RMAN_LOG_FILE" fi # ----------------------------------------------------------------- # Initialize the log file. # ----------------------------------------------------------------- echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE chmod 666 $RMAN_LOG_FILE # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Log the start of this script. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- echo Script $0 >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo ==== started on `date` ==== >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Replace /db/oracle/product/ora102, below, with the Oracle home path. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ORACLE_HOME=/u01/app/oracle/product/11.2.0.4/dbhome_1 export ORACLE_HOME # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Replace ora102, below, with the Oracle SID of the target database. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ORACLE_SID=yewu1 export ORACLE_SID # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Replace ora102, below, with the Oracle DBA user id (account). # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- ORACLE_USER=oracle # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Set the target connect string. # Replace "sys/manager", below, with the target connect string. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- TARGET_CONNECT_STR=sys/***(sys密码) # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Set the Oracle Recovery Manager name. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- RMAN=$ORACLE_HOME/bin/rman # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Print out the value of the variables set by this script. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "RMAN: $RMAN" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "ORACLE_SID: $ORACLE_SID" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "ORACLE_USER: $ORACLE_USER" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "ORACLE_HOME: $ORACLE_HOME" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Print out the value of the variables set by bphdb. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- echo  >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "NB_ORA_FULL: $NB_ORA_FULL" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "NB_ORA_INCR: $NB_ORA_INCR" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "NB_ORA_CINC: $NB_ORA_CINC" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "NB_ORA_SERV: $NB_ORA_SERV" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo   "NB_ORA_POLICY: $NB_ORA_POLICY" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # NOTE: This script assumes that the database is properly opened. If desired, # this would be the place to verify that. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # If this script is executed from a NetBackup schedule, NetBackup # sets an NB_ORA environment variable based on the schedule type. # The NB_ORA variable is then used to dynamically set BACKUP_TYPE # For example, when: #     schedule type is                BACKUP_TYPE is #     ----------------                -------------- # Automatic Full                     INCREMENTAL LEVEL=0 # Automatic Differential Incremental INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1 # Automatic Cumulative Incremental   INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1 CUMULATIVE #  # For user initiated backups, BACKUP_TYPE defaults to incremental # level 0 (full).  To change the default for a user initiated # backup to incremental or incremental cumulative, uncomment # one of the following two lines. # BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1" # BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1 CUMULATIVE" #  # Note that we use incremental level 0 to specify full backups. # That is because, although they are identical in content, only # the incremental level 0 backup can have incremental backups of # level > 0 applied to it. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- if [ "$NB_ORA_FULL" = "1" ] then         echo "Full backup requested" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE         BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=0" elif [ "$NB_ORA_INCR" = "1" ] then         echo "Differential incremental backup requested" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE         BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1" elif [ "$NB_ORA_CINC" = "1" ] then         echo "Cumulative incremental backup requested" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE         BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=1 CUMULATIVE" elif [ "$BACKUP_TYPE" = "" ] then         echo "Default - Full backup requested" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE         BACKUP_TYPE="INCREMENTAL LEVEL=0" fi # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Call Recovery Manager to initiate the backup. This example does not use a # Recovery Catalog. If you choose to use one, replace the option 'nocatalog' # from the rman command line below with the  # 'catalog <userid>/<passwd>@<net service name>' statement. # # Note: Any environment variables needed at run time by RMAN  #       must be set and exported within the switch user (su) command. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- #  Backs up the whole database.  This backup is part of the incremental #  strategy (this means it can have incremental backups of levels > 0 #  applied to it). # #  We do not need to explicitly request the control file to be included #  in this backup, as it is automatically included each time file 1 of #  the system tablespace is backed up (the inference: as it is a whole #  database backup, file 1 of the system tablespace will be backed up, #  hence the controlfile will also be included automatically). # #  Typically, a level 0 backup would be done at least once a week. # #  The scenario assumes: #     o you are backing your database up to two tape drives #     o you want each backup set to include a maximum of 5 files #     o you wish to include offline datafiles, and read-only tablespaces, #       in the backup #     o you want the backup to continue if any files are inaccessible. #     o you are not using a Recovery Catalog #     o you are explicitly backing up the control file.  Since you are #       specifying nocatalog, the controlfile backup that occurs #       automatically as the result of backing up the system file is #       not sufficient; it will not contain records for the backup that #       is currently in progress. #     o you want to archive the current log, back up all the #       archive logs using two channels, putting a maximum of 20 logs #       in a backup set, and deleting them once the backup is complete. # #  Note that the format string is constructed to guarantee uniqueness and #  to enhance NetBackup for Oracle backup and restore performance. # # #  NOTE WHEN USING NET SERVICE NAME: When connecting to a database #  using a net service name, you must use a send command or a parms operand to  #  specify environment variables.  In other words, when accessing a database #  through a listener, the environment variables set at the system level are not  #  visible when RMAN is running.  For more information on the environment #  variables, please refer to the NetBackup for Oracle Admin. Guide. # # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- CMD_STR=" ORACLE_HOME=$ORACLE_HOME export ORACLE_HOME ORACLE_SID=$ORACLE_SID export ORACLE_SID $RMAN target $TARGET_CONNECT_STR nocatalog msglog $RMAN_LOG_FILE append << EOF RUN { ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'; ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'; SEND 'NB_ORA_POLICY=linux-oracle-yewu1,NB_ORA_CLIENT=nbuoracle1'; BACKUP     $BACKUP_TYPE     SKIP INACCESSIBLE     TAG hot_db_bk_level0     FILESPERSET 5     # recommended format     FORMAT 'bk_%s_%p_%t'     DATABASE;     sql 'alter system archive log current'; RELEASE CHANNEL ch00; RELEASE CHANNEL ch01; # backup all archive logs ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'; ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch01 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'; SEND 'NB_ORA_POLICY=linux-oracle-yewu1,NB_ORA_CLIENT=nbuoracle1'; BACKUP    filesperset 20    FORMAT 'al_%s_%p_%t'    #ARCHIVELOG ALL DELETE INPUT; ARCHIVELOG ALL NOT BACKED UP 1 TIMES; DELETE NOPROMPT ARCHIVELOG ALL COMPLETED BEFORE 'SYSDATE-10'; RELEASE CHANNEL ch00; RELEASE CHANNEL ch01; # # Note: During the process of backing up the database, RMAN also backs up the # control file.  This version of the control file does not contain the # information about the current backup because "nocatalog" has been specified. # To include the information about the current backup, the control file should # be backed up as the last step of the RMAN section.  This step would not be # necessary if we were using a recovery catalog or auto control file backups. # ALLOCATE CHANNEL ch00 TYPE 'SBT_TAPE'; SEND 'NB_ORA_POLICY=linux-oracle-yewu1,NB_ORA_CLIENT=nbuoracle1'; BACKUP     # recommended format     FORMAT 'cntrl_%s_%p_%t'     CURRENT CONTROLFILE; RELEASE CHANNEL ch00; } EOF " # Initiate the command string if [ "$CUSER" = "root" ] then     su - $ORACLE_USER -c "$CMD_STR" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE     RSTAT=$? else     /usr/bin/sh -c "$CMD_STR" >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE     RSTAT=$? fi # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- # Log the completion of this script. # --------------------------------------------------------------------------- if [ "$RSTAT" = "0" ] then     LOGMSG="ended successfully" else     LOGMSG="ended in error" fi echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo Script $0 >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo ==== $LOGMSG on `date` ==== >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE echo >> $RMAN_LOG_FILE exit $RSTAT      原文地址:

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